How to prevent and avoid coal mine gas accident

Gas is the process of mining coal released from the colorless, tasteless, odorless gas, there are a lot of hazards: First, can burn and cause a fire; the second is to explode, resulting in ore crash; three is too high concentration It can cause people to suffer from hypoxia and even death. It is affected by factors such as geological occurrence and well mining conditions.

Gas accidents are not natural disasters, nor are they impossible to prevent. Through past accident analysis, 98.5% of gas accidents are caused by neglect of management and violation of gas management system. It is completely preventable and avoidable, as long as the coal mine safety is seriously implemented. The Regulations and related regulations prevent gas accumulation and fire sources to prevent gas accidents.

First, the prevention of gas accidents is theoretically feasible.

The prevention and control of gas is mainly aimed at preventing the occurrence of gas accidents. A gas explosion accident must have three conditions: 5%-16% gas concentration, 12% oxygen and a detonating heat source. Without any of the conditions, the explosion will not happen. Therefore, the means to prevent gas explosions is to remove one or several conditions that cause an explosion.

From the oxygen supply conditions, the oxygen concentration in the air entering the well is 21%. Due to the inflow of gas, carbon dioxide and other gases into the well, the oxidation of underground coal, equipment, organic matter and personnel breathing consumes, the oxygen content in the wind will gradually decrease. However, the oxygen content in the airflow to the workplace is generally above 20%. Theoretically, in the formation of gas accumulation, the gas concentration in the mixed gas is increased to 10%, and the oxygen concentration in the mixed gas is lowered to 18%. The oxygen concentration can only drop to 12% when the gas concentration increases by 40%. Therefore, at locations where gas accumulates, the oxygen concentration tends to be greater than 12%. Therefore, it is impossible to prevent gas explosion by isolating oxygen supply, which is impossible in the production process.

From the point of view of eliminating the heat source, the minimum ignition energy of the gas explosion is 0.28mj. There are many fire sources that can detonate the gas. The main heat source in the underground can be controlled by human behavior, such as using explosion-proof equipment, eliminating open fire operations, and using safe explosives for shooting. However, there are still some natural factors that cause fire sources to be out of control. Such as friction sparks, collision sparks, etc. can produce enough energy to detonate gas. Therefore, various measures should be taken under the coal mine to prevent the generation of heat sources to prevent the ignition of gas and explosion.

From the control of gas concentration, in the underground coal mine production process, under normal ventilation, the gushing gas is diluted and taken away by the wind flow flowing through the working surface. When there is a breeze on the working surface, the gas and air laminar flow will be mixed. The gas concentration will rise rapidly and the local gas accumulation will be formed. It can be seen that when the wind is reproduced in the underground, it is easy to form the first basic condition of the gas explosion. Therefore, ensuring normal ventilation and eliminating the breeze area is a fundamental measure to prevent gas accumulation and prevent gas accidents.

Second, prevent gas accumulation is the fundamental measure to prevent gas accidents

To prevent gas accidents, the fundamental measure is to prevent the accumulation of gas. Due to the complex and variable ventilation system of mines, various geological conditions and mining conditions, and the management factors of mines, the accumulation of gas in underground mines often occurs. The causes of gas accumulation are various, such as insufficient air supply and ventilation. If the system is unreasonable or the ventilation facilities are damaged, power outages, winds, etc., it is easy to form the first basic condition of gas explosion. All gas explosions in the mine are caused by the accumulation of gas. Therefore, the occurrence of gas accumulation must be handled in time to ensure that the gas concentration is within the allowable range.

There are many measures to prevent gas accumulation in underground, but the most common and reliable ones are to strengthen ventilation, strengthen inspection, strengthen local gas accumulation, eliminate breeze or windless areas, and construct scientific, reasonable and reliable ventilation facilities to establish “breeding operation”. The safety concept of the accident. Analysis of the gas explosion accidents that have occurred over the years is due to the lack of attention to the basic work of ventilation, which leads to the accumulation of gas, and finally causes an explosion. The reason is:

First, the ventilation system lacks stability. Ventilation facilities such as air ducts, dampers, wind windows, wind bridges, wind barriers, etc. are the most important infrastructure for miners to provide fresh air and prevent gas accumulation and prevent gas accidents. Once these ventilation facilities are destroyed, the wind flow may be disordered. Leading to gas accidents, causing heavy casualties; therefore, consciously take care of the underground ventilation facilities, and immediately close them through the damper. You cannot open the two doors at the same time to avoid short-circuiting of the wind. If the ventilation facility is found to be damaged, the work is not normal, or the air volume is insufficient, it should be reported in time and repaired.

In some cases, in the daily management, the regulations are like a dummy. The performance is not confined in the closed place. The wind bridge is not used in the place where the wind bridge is used. As a result, the location of the accident does not form a ventilation system, the wind flow is difficult to control, the air volume cannot be guaranteed, the gas cannot be diluted, and eventually it will accumulate and reach the explosion condition. For example, the "9.18" gas explosion accident occurred in the Yongdingzhuang Coal Mine of the same coal group in 1997 and the "9.5" gas explosion accident occurred in the mine in 2000 were caused by a wind bridge in the wind inlet and the backwind lane of the panel. . The direct cause of the "9.18" accident was the shortage of a wind bridge. The working face did not constitute a stable and reliable ventilation system. The direct cause of the "9.5" accident was that the working surface wind bridge was damaged by the cannon, it was not repaired in time, and the air leakage was serious, causing the wind flow. Short circuit, the working surface is in a breeze, causing gas

Second, the ventilation facilities lack timeliness. The so-called timeliness means that it is effective in time. Because the downhole ventilation system often changes. The air volume and wind pressure fluctuate at any time, and the gas vents abnormally. Therefore, when the ventilation is abnormal, the ventilation management department and its staff must immediately make a correct judgment and take measures to deal with it in time. Otherwise, the ventilation system will be disordered and the gas will accumulate and cause an accident. For example: On November 27, 1993, the coal mining area Jinhuagong Mine Nanshanjing 7# layer 303 panel area 8317 preparation work surface due to geological structure, open all eyes at 280 meters from the cutting eye, in the outer cut eyes After taking any measures in time, the wind flow was short-circuited from the incision, causing gas accumulation to cause an accident. Similarly, on January 21, 1995, the Yungang Mine was also unable to do any ventilation facilities for up to 8 hours after the tunnel was connected, causing the accident site to accumulate in a breeze, causing an accident.

The third is insufficient understanding of ventilation management. Mainly in the guiding ideology of ventilation work, some coal mine managers lack scientific understanding, mistakenly believe that ventilation work is simple, as long as it can supply air to the work area, even if there is a problem with the ventilation system, there will be no gas accident immediately. . These people often do not see the importance, scientificity, rigor of the ventilation work, causing some coal mines to stop at random, a fan of a fan, and poor management of the air duct. Some even have a long working face. Time is in a windless state and you don't care. On June 8, 1993, the third cut of the 8# layer 8615 of the 4th South Mine of Tongmei Group Labor Service Corporation was not opened during the excavation, the wind was not opened on the working face, and the gas explosion caused the gas explosion. Due to the mine, the ventilation management work was not taken seriously, and even the green light of the ventilation management was violated. The blind lanes were ignored and ignored. As a result, a gas explosion accident occurred. For example, the gas explosion accident occurred in the Si Laogou mine on July 1, 1997, because the relative gas emission of the mine is 0.398m3/t, which is a low gas mine, resulting in a long-term unmanned operation of a 73-meter-long blind alley. Causing an accident.

Fourth, the implementation of various safety measures for ventilation management is insufficient. First of all, maintaining the normal ventilation of the mine is the main method to prevent gas disasters. The normal operation of the mine main ventilator and the intact mine ventilation system are the main links to maintain the normal ventilation of the mine. Once the main fan is shut down or the mine ventilation system is damaged, it will inevitably cause damage to the mining face or ventilation system of the whole well, and the gas in the mining face of the affected area will accumulate. In order to prevent gas disasters, safety measures must be taken to restore ventilation, remove gas and send electricity. After the main fan was stopped, due to lack of safety measures or ineffective safety measures, the main fan and the underground power transmission were blindly started, and the gas explosion accident caused many casualties more than once. For example, on August 25, 1999, the second mine of Pingdingshan Hanzhuang Bureau of Henan Province was shut down due to the power supply bureau, the main mine was blacked out, the main ventilator stopped running, and a gas explosion occurred in the underground after the call, killing 55 people; on April 21, 1991, Shanxi The gas explosion in the Hongjiao Sanjiaohe coal mine killed 147 people; on January 25, 1997, the Yimao Mining Bureau’s gas explosion in the Zhuangzhuang Village mine killed 31 people. The reason was due to improper handling of the sudden power outage of the whole mine.

Secondly, it is to strengthen the management of the local ventilator. The excavation working face is one of the most prone to gas accumulation and gas explosion. The normal operation of the local ventilator can effectively prevent the occurrence of gas accidents. In 1991, Wangzhuang Village, Huairen County, Shanxi Province. In the coal mine, during the Spring Festival holiday, the local ventilator stopped at the mining area, and the gas in the roadway was overrun. When the captain entered the roadway inspection, the mine lamp exploded and sparks caused the gas explosion, resulting in 12 deaths. Major malignant accident.

From the analysis of the above accidents, it is not difficult to see that the gas explosion accidents that have occurred over the years are all related to the accumulation of gas and abnormal ventilation. The lessons of blood prove that the accumulation of gas caused by breeze operation and windless operation is the root cause of all gas accidents. In order to cure the gas accident, it is necessary to strengthen gas management, use scientific monitoring methods, strict management system, and a tough legal system. Gas accidents can be completely prevented and avoided. The most terrible thing is not "gas". The terrible thing is that monitoring means are not implemented, the management system is not implemented, and the legal system is not perfect. Driven by the interests, there are orders that can't be done, there are prohibitions, and adventures and ruthlessness are the roadblocks for gas control and prevention. Only a correct mindset has formed a consensus. Under the guidance and support of the state, gas prevention and governance can be fully realized.

Third, the elimination of fire source is an important means of preventing gas accidents

The minimum ignition temperature of gas and air mixed gas is 565 ° C for adiabatic compression, 650 ° C for other cases, and the minimum ignition energy is 0.28 mj. Many in the coal mine gas explosion can fire, fire pit mine (above 1000 ℃), spontaneous combustion of coal, electric arc (average 4000 ℃), sparks, red hot metal surface (up to 1500 ℃) as well as impact and friction Sparks can ignite gas.

The main heat source in the underground is mainly controlled by human behavior, such as the use of explosion-proof equipment, the elimination of open fire operations, the use of safe explosives for shooting. However, there are still some natural factors that cause fire sources to be out of control. Such as friction sparks, collision sparks, etc. can produce enough energy to detonate gas. Analysis of the gas explosions that have occurred over the years, the gas explosion caused by friction sparks and collision sparks only accounted for 1.5%; and the gas explosion caused by blasting accounted for 39%, becoming the first source of gas explosion; gas explosion caused by electrical explosion Accounting for 34.1%, it is the second source of gas explosion. Gas explosions caused by other reasons accounted for 25.4%. This shows that most gas explosions are caused by open flames or electrical sparks.

The gas accident caused by blasting is, in the final analysis, due to the artificially not implementing the blasting management system strictly. It does not implement the "one shot and three inspections" and the "three-person interlocking and shooting"; it does not use water cannon mud; it does not implement the sprinkling system before and after blasting.

For the analysis of past accidents, it is not difficult to find that all gas accidents have an indispensable heat source condition, and the heat source conditions that are often present are caused by human factors, such as electrical explosion, illegal demolition of miner's lamps. For example, on May 14, 1988, a mine in the Huo County Mining Bureau of Shanxi Province opened the switch cover due to the violation of the regulations of the workers, and the handle was turned on. The electric spark was generated in the switch, causing an open flame, causing a fire to detonate, causing gas explosion. 50 people died on the spot. Injury 4 people. At 16:03 on May 13th, 2003, the Luling Coal Mine of Anhui Huaibei Mining Group did not operate according to the regulations during the inspection of electrical equipment. The magnetic starter junction box was in an open state, and its explosion-proof performance has been destroyed and squeezed out. When the gas flow rushed out, the short-circuit discharge of the power supply terminal caused a spark, causing gas explosion, killing 86 people and injuring 28 people. On June 20, 2002, the special gas explosion accident occurred in Chengzihe Coal Mine of Heilongjiang Jixi Mining Group was because the local ventilator did not realize wind power lockout. After the wind turbine was stopped, the power supply was still normal in the roadway. As a result, the submersible pump switch was inserted. Explosively, the worker started the interlock switch to generate electric arc when the feed pump was powered, causing an explosion, resulting in 124 deaths and 24 injuries. On the night of August 4, 1988, a worker in the No. 1 well of a mine in Gansu repaired the miner's lamp. 45 people were killed and 4 people were injured as a result of a spark caused by a miner's lamp. The gas explosion of gas caused by the explosion of electrical appliances accounted for one-third. Therefore, strengthen the electrical management of underground coal mines to prevent the explosion of electrical appliances. It is another reliable way to prevent gas explosions.

Fourth, strengthening the implementation of the system is a powerful guarantee for preventing gas accidents

"Gas" is listed as the "five major disasters", which poses a major hazard to China's coal mine safety production. It has taken away the lives of thousands of miners' brothers. The gas is not cured. The mines have no peace. The country has always been very concerned about the gas control work of coal mines. In particular, the important measures adopted to accelerate the safety transformation and gas control of coal mines adopted by the 81st executive meeting of the State Council on February 23 this year; followed by the meeting of gas management in Huai'an, Anhui, from the strategic height of building a socialist harmonious society. Deeply expounded the importance of coal mine safety production and gas control work, re-emphasizing the responsibility of the state, local governments, and enterprises in coal mine work, emphasizing the need to take effective measures to fight a tough battle against coal mine gas control and solve the problem Heavy gas accidents have a lot of momentum.

Prevention of gas must first strengthen the responsibility for production safety. Coal mine safety production is related to the safety of people's lives and property, and is related to national economic development and social stability. From the state to the local, from the local to the enterprise, a series of safety production regulations and systems have been formulated. The responsibility is the soul of safe production, and the safety responsibility is heavier than Taishan. After the Haizhou vertical accident of Liaoning Fuxin Mining Group, the public opinion at home and abroad was highly concerned. The state has made three orders and five applications. Under the circumstances of increasing safety supervision by the governments at all levels, there have been many extra-large gas accidents in the national coal mines, including one death. There were 8 major accidents mentioned above. Moreover, these accidents are major liability accidents. What does this mean? It shows that our safety responsibility system has not really been implemented. Failure to implement the safety system is a "natural enemy" to prevent gas accidents. If the system is not implemented, it will cause underground gas accumulation. If the system is not implemented, gas will exceed the limit. If the system is not implemented, the fire will be triggered. The system will not be implemented sooner or later. The occurrence of a gas accident is a dialectical logical relationship and a witness to blood again and again.

V. "People-oriented" is an important principle for preventing gas accidents

The key to managing gas is to "manage people." The national coal mine gas prevention and control site will be held in Huainan, Anhui Province. Unlike the common “safe work conference” and “coal safety conference” in the past, a national conference was held for one of the coal mine safety, which was the first time since the founding of the People's Republic of China. This shows that the government has realized that gas, as the biggest threat to coal mine safety, has reached a time when it can't be delayed for a while and needs to be governed by “supernormal” speed.

People are already very familiar with "gas", but unlike the popularization of other scientific and technological terms, the process of familiarizing people with gas is accompanied by coal mine accidents, the death of a batch of miners, and the lessons of blood. After the concept of "people-oriented" and building a harmonious society, "we don't want to bring wealth" has become the consensus of the whole country. "Winning the gas" is also the wish of all. So, what do we rely on to defeat gas? Perhaps in the eyes of many people, the answer is obvious: we have to rely on technology. At present, the technology for controlling gas accidents at home and abroad is quite mature. As long as the safety equipment is in place, the gas accident can be effectively stopped as long as the operation of the safety regulations is in place. Earlier, the State Administration of Work Safety issued a 12-character policy of “first pumping, mining, monitoring and monitoring, and wind production”. According to the analysis of the gas accidents of more than 100 people who died in the past three times, there are still some coal mines that have not implemented the 12-character policy. It can be seen that the technical factor is not the first. It has also been suggested that we lack funds. Indeed, in the past, coal mine security debts reached tens of billions. However, in the past few years, the country’s coal prices have risen and profits have risen. It is absolutely possible to take some of the proceeds to control the gas. The relevant state departments have decided to increase the safety costs of the general public. It is estimated that the investment in technological transformation of coal mine cases this year will reach 15 billion yuan, so that funds are not a problem.

Solving financial and technical problems, these problems are relatively easy to solve. The most worrying thing is "people." If people's problems are not solved well, gas will still be raging. The problem of "people" is first and foremost the true establishment of the "people-oriented" concept, manifested in the full respect for every equal life. From the government's supervisors, they will not be blind, and let the coal mines with hidden dangers continue to produce; if the people's problems are solved, the coal mine managers will not let the workers go down to the "sooner or later" for the benefit; When the human problem is solved, the workers have the right to refuse to work in the mine where the accident may occur; the human problem is solved. When someone dares to let the workers venture into the well, the trade union organization and the labor security department will stand up and defend the workers' rights...

To solve the problem of "people", we must establish the authority of legislation. We have the Labor Law, the Safety Production Law and many detailed production regulations. If these laws and regulations can be implemented in the whole process of coal mine safety, gas will not have the opportunity to harm miners.

Coal mine safety is not only the safety of "production", the key is the safety of "people", and the battle against gas is the key to people. Leaving the attention of "people", the technical equipment is higher, and it may become the decoration of some coal mines; if the funds are sufficient, it may not be used where it is most needed. Only when the "people-oriented" truth is really implemented, it is possible to overcome the gas, and frequent coal mine explosions can gradually disappear.

In short, coal mine gas accidents can be prevented and avoided, at least it can be greatly reduced. The advanced experience of typical units shows that as long as we insist on using the scientific development concept to guide the work of coal mine production and construction, establish an active and comprehensive view of gas control, organically combine safety production measures with scientific and technological progress, and build safe and efficient mines. Production concentration, first extraction of gas, so that high gas, coal and gas outburst mines in a low gas state, and then mining coal, will be able to effectively prevent coal mine gas accidents. The effective practice that has been proved by practice is: "high investment, high quality, strong technology, strict management, and re-use." "High investment" is to raise and use safe production costs, constantly improve the safety system, and promote equipment upgrades; "high quality" means paying attention to and strengthening the introduction of talents and the cultivation of follow-up talents, and improving the quality of coal mine workers; "Strong technology" means actively carrying out scientific and technological innovation and tackling key problems, exploring new measures and new methods for gas prevention and control, and advancing the scientific and technological progress of coal mines. "Strict management" means strictly implementing the responsibility system for production safety of leading cadres "one pass and three defenses". Strict technical management of the main site management, adhere to strict management, fine management, change the long-standing extensive management mode of coal mines; "re-utilization" means to adhere to the "use of pumping insurance, to promote pumping" to benefit. Turning waste into treasure, not only protecting resources, but also protecting the environment, and promoting the coal mine to embark on a virtuous cycle.

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