All-digital wireless conference and sound reinforcement system discussion system design

Brief introduction of all-digital wireless conference and sound reinforcement system discussion system
The design of the all-digital wireless conference system includes the audio and video integration function. According to the practical application and needs of the project, we adopt the latest and most advanced products and advanced design methods to propose the system solutions for users to choose and reference. Our The ultimate idea is to build a set of advanced/stable/superior/economical systems, becoming a digital, multi-functional, and intelligent audio/video system with leading technology and highest technological content in China. The entire project sound reinforcement system will be completed in accordance with the acoustic standards to meet the national language and music sound reinforcement level. In order to meet the needs of more efficient and real-time command, the conference system is equipped with a network central integrated control device to control all audio and video equipment in the room, signal switching, lights, screen lifting, volume adjustment and other functions, greatly improving work efficiency and simplifying complex operations. All people use without the need for professional knowledge.
Digital conference system related drawings
1: Topology
2: layout of the digital conference system
In the construction of the conference room construction project, a meeting room integrating daily meetings, video conferences, and multi-functional conferences will be built according to the concept of “demand traction, aiming at the forefront, ensuring workability, and facilitating development” to ensure advanced design concepts and systems for meeting rooms. Stable, functional, and efficient.
Conference System Design Case Name

area()

Conference room type

Functional description

11th floor video conference room

240

Auditorium

Professional Performing Arts Sound Enhancement + Image Display System + Centralized Control System + Matrix and Signal Switching System + Digital Conference System - With Voting Function + Meeting Meetings, Annual Performances, Large Reports, etc.

Nine floor meeting room

70

Round table

Image display + digital conference + professional sound reinforcement + camera tracking (HD) + central control system + signal switching and matrix (HD) + video conferencing system (reservation interface) to meet the small report meeting, remote video conferencing, important high The meeting of the standard request is held.

Fifth, eighth and tenth meeting rooms

70

Reporting Room (Training Room)

Image display + digital conference + professional sound reinforcement + camera tracking (HD) + central control system + signal switching and matrix (HD) + video conferencing system (reservation interface) to meet the small report meeting, remote video conferencing, important high The meeting of the standard request is held.


Conference System Design Requirements
The system must be able to manage all video and audio systems conveniently and quickly;
Improve the projection display effect Use DLP project projector or splicing display system, with high contrast, good image clarity, uniform screen, sharp color, long life, stable picture quality, etc.;
Ensure that the audio amplification system is easy to operate, flexible, and meet different functional requirements of the conference mode;
Design a centralized network control system so that the entire system can be managed quickly and easily;
Meet the requirements for holding video conferences, daily meetings, and multi-functional conferences;
Meet the needs of signal transmission, video terminal signal access and signal display.
With the development of technology and improvement of functional requirements, especially the popularity and application of computers and networks, the scope of the conference system has become larger, including voting/election/appraisal, video, televideo, teleconference, and interpretation. Translation, desktop display, these are the basic elements that make up the present conference system, and derive a series of related equipments at the same time, such as central control, light control, power control, sound control, display control and so on. Driven by the development of modern science and technology, the conference system is defined as a set of conference-related hardware and software.
Digital Conference System Design Principles
Our company is based on the principle of the supremacy of the users and meets the requirements of the owners in accordance with the national regulations. The following are the eight principles that our company adheres to in the design of the system in the spirit of advanced technology, high efficiency and convenience, and reasonable investment for the benefit of the owners.
Advancement
This system adopts advanced and practical technologies and fully-featured intelligent conference products and first-class equipment. It is technologically advanced and the entire system reflects the current level of development of the intelligent conference system technology and is in line with future development trends. It will maintain its leading position in technology for a long time to come.
Maturity and practicality
All subsystems should adopt advanced, used, mature and reliable products, at the same time have practicality, and give full play to the function and role of each device. The system can fully meet the requirements of the visual management of the conference system. It is easy to operate, easy to maintain, and easy to manage.
Flexibility and openness
On the basis of satisfying the current requirements of the owners, and adapting to the future development of the 21st century, the system should be open and compatible, and it should have good interconnection and interoperability with the future expanded equipment.
Integration and extensibility
System design fully considers the integration of each system in the conference room, ensuring the advanced, rationality, scalability, and compatibility of the overall structure of the conference system. The use of different manufacturers and different types of advanced products enables the entire system to follow the technology. The development and progress have been continuously enriched and improved.
Standardization and modularization
In strict accordance with relevant national and regional standards for system design and equipment configuration, and according to the requirements of the overall structure of the system, the various subsystems are structured and standardized to comprehensively reflect the advanced technologies of today's world.
Safety and reliability
A deep understanding of the importance of the safe and reliable operation of equipment and systems in the conference room, therefore, safety and reliability are always the top priority in the selection of equipment and system design.
Serviceability and convenience
To adapt to the various functional needs of the conference room, the system used should fully reflect the security, advanced, reliable, convenient, and high-efficiency for all aspects of management and users.
Economic type
Under the premise of ensuring the advanced, reliable and high-performance price ratio of the system, the most economical goal can be achieved by optimizing the design.
Discussion meeting presentation system
Discussion Conference System Overview
With the rapid development of science and technology today, old-fashioned conference formats have been unable to meet the requirements of modern conference systems. The modern digital conference system has simplified conference procedures and diversified functions. It can control and manage the conference, including stable and pure voice transmission. The discussion is clear and orderly, making the entire conference format highly efficient.
A more complete digital conference system includes the following main aspects: sign-in, speech, conference sound reinforcement, data display, conference process control, conference camera, and conference multimedia data display. The system first completes the conference registration and speech (voting Three major functions such as conference management and meeting process management enable timely and error-free reporting, flexible and controllable speaking, rapid and accurate voting, and standardized interfaces for the expansion and upgrade of other functions, so that the entire interface has better advanced performance. And good compatibility.
A set of digital conference presentation system was designed. The entire system integrates the advanced and mature technologies of control and image processing, and the system of conference presentations and discussions constitutes a complete digital conference system. It becomes an organic whole and realizes The automation of the entire conference system and digital technology of the conference system create conditions for future upgrades.
The digital conference system adopts hand-in-hand digital conference equipment, including speech equipment, control equipment and other external equipment. The difference between the traditional conference mode and the modern multimedia conference mode:
Traditional conference mode features:
The number of traditional conference mode microphones is limited: due to the limitations of the number of mixer consoles, the conference unit (microphone) cannot be connected too much, generally no more than 10 microphones.
The traditional conference mode has a confusing order of conferences: all conference participants use the same type of speech unit, and cannot identify the chairman or attendance of the conference. This makes the conference regardless of the priority of the conference. At the same time, the participants can freely speak without restriction, making the order of the conference disorder.
The traditional conference mode is single: unable to complete the complicated conference form requirements, like the functions of the audio interpretation and special conference functions, such as: automatic video fixed-point tracking, speech restriction and conference assistant functions: voting, remote teleconference participation, etc.
Modern conference mode features:
Restrictions on speech and other auxiliary functions: In order to adapt to more and more forms of conference activities nowadays, modern multi-functional conference systems can control the speaking order of the entire conference according to the requirements of the conference chairperson. Among them, the management of the conference sequence is achieved by controlling the switching of conference microphones; in addition, voting is an indispensable conference content in many conferences. However, in the past, voting methods often used hand-raising or ballots, and such voting was conducted. There are shortcomings such as poor confidentiality, low efficiency, and high error rate, which can be completely avoided in the electronic voting function of modern conference systems. When the chairperson of the conference initiates a vote, the voting device in front of all the participants will be flashing. At this time, the corresponding button can be pressed according to personal meaning. The final voting result can be completed within 10 seconds and displayed on the big screen. On the screen, it is quick, accurate, and intuitive.
Automatic video fixed-point tracking: In the modern conference room, more and more attention is paid to the integration of audio and video. The system in the conference can not only restore and amplify the speaker's voice, but also effect its reproduction through the video system. This will enable participants to have a tangible meeting effect.
Remote telephony participation function: In some special circumstances, when an emergency meeting is held, some of the main leaders are unable to attend the discussion. In this case, the system needs to have a remote telephone to participate in the discussion, and the outsiders can participate only by dialing the phone. During the meeting discussion, all the participants in the conference can listen to their speeches. In order to communicate better and more efficient.
The conference discussion voting system adopts the digital conference discussion voting system of the well-known domestic XBPA brand. The system is connected in a hand-in-hand manner. The speech unit is installed by hand and is handy to install. The appearance is beautiful, the installation is flexible, the use is very convenient, and the amount of wiring is very small. Does not affect the overall decoration layout. The XBPA digital discussion voting system consists of a digital conference control host, desktop voting conference chair, desktop voting discussion delegates, and a camera tracking host. It satisfies meeting function requirements such as speech, voting, and election. The system also has the function of video auto tracking. When the speaking representative opens the microphone, the camera can automatically point the speaker for video recording and display it to the big screen or projection equipment. It can also be manually controlled to monitor the whole field with flexible control. It can realize fast switching between multiple cameras and between camera and video signals. Connect the recorder to record the entire conference process. The system management and control host is installed in the cabinet of the control room, and is laid from the underground pipe to the position of the rostrum through an 8-core dedicated extension cable. A ground interface box is connected to the extension line in the rostrum, and the speaking unit then comes with its own The cable is connected to the ground interface box to connect with the conference host. All the talking units are connected together in a series of hand-in-hand.
Digital conference system mode features:
Restricted working mode: It can be set to open 1/2/4 units at the same time. When the number of units is reached, the system enters the application mode.
First-in-first-out working mode: After the number of start-ups is reached, the first speech unit that can be turned on can be turned off by the subsequent speech unit;
Free work mode: No limit on the number of units to be opened, any unit in the field can open the statement at any time;
Application mode: Apply for work mode, all delegate units must be approved by the chairman or operator to speak, the chairman unit is equipped with LCD graphic display. High-brightness 256x32 dot-matrix LCD graphic display can directly display the number of speakers online, apply Information such as the number of spokespersons can approve the opening of the application microphone.
Digital conference system software features:
Conference system software is used on computers to control and manage the entire conference system. The conference system management software is full-featured and easy to understand. After the login is successful, you can directly enter the main interface of the conference system software. It can be seen that the system interface has 7 submenus: setting module, microphone module, check-in module, voting module, interpreter module, conference layout and representative information.
Conference mode management: limited number of speakers, first-in, first-out function, specified speaking mode, application for speaking mode, irrevocable application mode, unit timing speech and speaking time limit.
Speech unit management: The switch of any unit queries query unit action information.
Voting function and data management: You can select a registered or secret ballot. The system supports the counting of votes valid for the first time or the last time the vote is valid. The system can count the voting results within 10 seconds. The column shows the voting results. The hall display device and the chairman unit's LCD are displayed on the LCD screen. The voting result cannot be modified, but the voting can be re-executed. The voting result can be printed out or stored on the computer.
I.1 Acoustic sound reinforcement system
I.1.1 System Overview
The area and function of the sound reinforcement system conference room are designed with reference to the national sound reinforcement department level standard. The sound reinforcement system is mainly composed of loudspeakers, power amplifiers, audio processing equipment, mixers, microphones, and sound sources. The entire system uses the high-grade sound equipment with beautiful timbre in similar products to compose the sound system. The most technologically mature, advanced performance and reliable product types in similar products are used to design the sound room coefficients of the conference room to ensure the meeting room. The sound field in each corner is evenly audible, and there are no undesirable sound effects such as distortion, partial sound, mixing and reverberation. The sound reinforcement system in the conference room is mainly composed of three major components: sound source, audio processing equipment, power amplifier and speaker system.
The composition of the conference room sound reinforcement equipment:
1. Sound source: It mainly includes sound source equipment such as digital conference speech unit, wireless microphone, conference microphone, DVD player multimedia computer, etc. It can play CD records and DVD video and audio images.
2. Conference audio processing equipment: It is the core equipment in conference sound reinforcement, which can carry out multi-channel audio signal mixed amplification, switching, high and low sound adjustment, effect compensation control, volume adjustment, recording and playback;
3, power amplifiers and speakers: The sound quality and sound field uniformity of the entire sound reinforcement system mainly depends on the speaker's quality and layout. Different types of speakers require different power amplifiers.
I.1.2 System Design
design standards:
According to the acoustic characteristics index standard of the national hall sound reinforcement system design, the maximum sound pressure level in the steady state quasi-peak state of the empty field a. The first level standard of the language sound reinforcement system should be ≥90dB, b. Language and music amplification system The standard should reach ≥95dB; c. The measurement of the sound field non-uniformity should be ≤8dB when 1.0kHz and 4.0kHz are to be measured; d. The average value of the transmission gain should be ≥-8dB in the range of 0.125~4.0 kHz; the above is our national audio standard. The sound reinforcement system must meet and exceed the national standards to reflect the excellent performance of the system. The sound effects of the sound reinforcement system in the conference room should be in line with the language sound reinforcement standard in the acoustic characteristics of the above GYJ125 hall sound reinforcement system design. The speech should be able to achieve clear language, no distortion, adequate sound pressure margin, and uniform sound field distribution. Silent feedback whistle, sound image positioning is correct. We must be able to compensate for the acoustic defects of the building through electro-acoustic methods. Therefore, the quality of sound reinforcement equipment must be of high quality.
According to the acoustic characteristics of the design of the hall sound reinforcement system, the maximum sound pressure level in the steady state quasi-peak state of the empty space a. The first level standard of the indoor sound reinforcement system is 90dB, b. The indoor language and the music amplification system The standard is up to 95dB; our system is designed according to a standard.
The main purpose of the sound reinforcement system is to clearly convey the language information during the meeting, taking into account the high-quality music reinforcement of multimedia playback. When meeting, it is required to transmit clear and understandable speech content to the listener. In this case, the clarity of the sound is far more important than the sound quality. Therefore, we will solve the problem of language design and intelligibility as the primary principle of sound reinforcement in the system design. The entire system pursues a wide frequency domain, flat frequency response, and low distortion.
The volume and reverberation time of the conference room are determined by the building structure and the decorating materials used. Properly reduce the reverberation time of the original building, improve the signal-to-noise ratio, reduce the acoustic reflection phenomenon, and correct the specific reflection sound of long time, long delay and high sound pressure level. According to the volume of the conference room, we estimate that the total reverberation time should be controlled within the range of 0.7-0.8s. Other work needs to be completed by the sound reinforcement system.
Sound field formation:
Because most modern sound reinforcement equipment can already cover the frequency domain that plays a key role in language intelligibility. When we choose speakers, we must first consider the frequency response range of the speakers. In general, the vocal pitch range is 160Hz-350Hz, and the harmonic range is 160Hz-4KHz. The 315Hz-3KHz frequency band is a relatively sensitive area for human ears. The frequency range of our selected speaker system should cover the above frequency bands.
For the actual use of functions in the conference room, that is to have its own characteristics, but also in line with the laws of science and advanced system design ideas, in accordance with the principle of sound-based, supplemented by sound, electro-acoustic system design must be closely matched with the architectural acoustic design , Perfect combination of electroacoustic sound and construction sound, ensuring good sound reproduction and reproduction, to meet the actual needs of use. The audio system design ideas, methods and methods in the conference room should be advanced and practical; the equipment should use high-tech products that can reflect the current state-of-the-art technology.
Speaker design:
Loudspeaker selection should be based on the following principles: high sensitivity and wide smooth frequency response, high output sound pressure and low distortion, effective sound directivity and coverage. The overall sound reinforcement speaker is required to be clear at high frequencies. The midrange frequency has extremely high control and penetrating power, full sound and solid bass. The system sound has high fidelity, clarity, moderate sound and hardness. According to the first-class index requirements of the room sound reinforcement characteristics, starting from the system design, combined with computer software analysis, and finally designed the system configuration to reduce the acoustic energy of the diffuse reflection, acoustic interference, acoustic focusing and other acoustic phenomena clear language sound reinforcement Degree of adverse effects. The selected loudspeakers are required to ensure sufficient power headroom and low distortion under loud sound pressure. The design of the conference room sound reinforcement system is based on the scientific calculation of the sound field area of ​​the venue and the related professional software for testing. The acoustic system uses primary and secondary collocations. From the front area to the back field, from the top to the bottom, each area requires high-quality sound effects.
11th floor video conference room:
The 11th floor video conference room chose Guangzhou XBPA professional speakers. The speaker in the 11th floor video conference room consists of full-range speakers and subwoofers.
The main speaker consists of two 12-inch full-range speakers and the power reaches 400W. It is installed in front of the stage. The auxiliary speaker is composed of four 10-inch full-range speakers. Each full-range speaker has a power of 300W and is installed at both ends of the backyard. Listening speaker consists of two 12-inch full-range speakers, each speaker power up to 250W, installed in front of the stage; bass speaker consists of two 18-inch bass speakers, power up to 600W, installed in front of the stage. The speakers of the entire venue interact with each other to perform a full range of performing sound reinforcement throughout the venue.
Nine floor meeting room:
The nine-floor conference room chose Guangzhou XBPA professional speakers. The speakers in the nine-floor conference room consist of full-range speakers.
The speaker consists of four 10-inch full-range speakers, and the 10-inch full-range speaker power reaches 150W. On the front and middle sides of the conference room, four 8-inch ceiling speakers are installed in the middle of the conference room, each reaching 40W. From auxiliary sound reinforcement.
The fifth, eighth and tenth meeting rooms:
The fifth, eighth, and tenth floor conference rooms have selected Guangzhou XBPA professional speakers. The speakers in the 5th, 8th and 10th floor conference rooms are composed of full-range speakers.
The speaker consists of four 10-inch full-range speakers, and the 10-inch full-range speaker power reaches 150W. On the front and middle sides of the conference room, four 8-inch ceiling speakers are installed in the middle of the conference room, each reaching 40W. From auxiliary sound reinforcement.
Amplifier design:
The power amplifier system should have comprehensive protection measures including short circuit protection, open circuit protection, connection and unmatched load protection, overheat protection, input overload protection, DC protection, and high frequency overload protection, so that the power amplifier can work more stably. Provides a good, stable power output to the speaker system. The power amplifier circuit design needs to be reasonable, the line distortion is as low as possible, the frequency band is wide, the frequency response curve is straight, and the noise is low.
The amplifiers in the conference room are all equipped with class H high-efficiency professional amplifiers, built-in intelligent soft boot system, line impedance detection and protection system, ultra-low signal amplification system, etc., multi-community output mode, adopted scientific and technical speaker normal power and peak power, 1.5-2.0 redundant power configuration to meet the different speakers and long hours of work;
All-digital wireless conference and sound reinforcement system discussion system? Peripheral equipment:
Acoustic sound reinforcement system In addition to amplifiers and speakers, the equipment used to process audio effects is called peripheral equipment. The traditional peripheral equipment includes analog mixers, equalizers, compressors, frequency dividers, feedback suppressors, and exciter. Etc. With the development of technology in recent years, the sound reinforcement system has also evolved toward digitalization and integration. In recent years, many digital peripheral devices have been developed, and our company has also applied digital circuit integration technology to sound reinforcement systems. Using software control, based on the possession of traditional peripheral equipment, developed a digital audio processor such as a microphone pre-processor and an audio processor. The processor has built-in effects, an equalizer, an anti-screaming processor, and a noise gate. , Compressor limiter and other effects processing functions, the integration of functions, to solve the traditional sound reinforcement system in a variety of peripheral equipment, cumbersome operation, impedance mismatch and other issues, reducing the cost of equipment and excessive equipment caused by noise; processor configuration With software, it is convenient to perform microphone signal and audio source signal effect processing, and the effect can be set according to the site environment to achieve good use As a result, the low-frequency audio, low frequency, medium frequency, high frequency, high frequency, UHF segmentation process, reach deep and powerful bass, treble not harsh loud;
Sound source equipment:
The audio source equipment is an indispensable equipment in the conference room. The audio source equipment mainly includes sound source equipment such as digital conference speech unit, wireless microphone, conference microphone, DVD player multimedia computer, etc., and can play CD recordings, DVD audio and video images, and this design. Conference room audio equipment mainly
1: Conference microphone: used for meeting to discuss speech;
2: DVD player: used to play DVD video image use;
3: wireless microphone: used for mobile speech, program speech, singing use;
4: desktop/terrestrial audio interface: used for inputting laptop audio during the meeting process;
5: Remote video terminal: used to convert the remote conference audio signal into an analog audio signal and output it to the local stereo;
I.1.3 System functions
The configuration of the integrated sound reinforcement system, combined with the use of the sound reinforcement system in the conference room, the entire sound reinforcement system design can achieve the following functions
Conference room speaker sound reinforcement system features:
1: using audio processor and digital peripheral processor, design a variety of operating modes, such as conference discussion mode, video mode, program mode, teleconference mode, etc., can quickly adjust the microphone pre-processor according to different needs, to meet different modes Sound amplification;
2: Multi-channel input mixer, 4-channel output grouping, to solve the remote audio and local audio signal grouping output during the conference room to carry out remote video conference
3: Preset multiple groups of factory site effects and working modes, on-site debugging can be downloaded and used directly, without complicated debugging.
4: using software debugging and settings, according to the site environment, placement, speaker placement, type of meeting and other pre-set and real-time adjustment, the system can be docked with the centralized control system, through a centralized control system for management;
5: Set the pressure limit effect according to the conference type to prevent the signal output from being too large, bring in excessive audio current and burn the speaker.
6: Set the noise gate effect according to the conference type, filter excess noise into the audio equipment, generate noise, and affect the sound reinforcement effect;
7: The speaker adopts a pair of certain resistance transmission method, the impedance matching between the speaker and the amplifier, and adopts the full-bandwidth speaker to restore a good sound quality effect;
Brands
Founded in 1993, XBPA was the founder and founder of China’s intelligent conference system. It is currently the largest professional conference system manufacturer with the largest market share in the country, and is the world’s first manufacturer of digital conference systems.
Talent
XBPA has a team of more than 800 professionals engaged in R&D, production, and sales. 45% of employees have a university degree or junior and intermediate technical titles. The middle and senior managers all have a bachelor's degree and an MBA (Master of Business Administration). Academic qualifications and extensive conference system industry experience. Outstanding professional talents echelons have laid a solid foundation for enterprise development and brand building.
product
It has a large-scale, multi-system conference system production base in the world, forming a product system with as many as tens of series and more than 1,000 varieties;
service
XBPA owns a large-scale, multi-system product manufacturing base and sales service organization in China. Among them, there are several large-scale production bases in Guangzhou, and eight sales subsidiaries and technical assistance centers have been established in Guangzhou, Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Xi’an, Shenyang and Chengdu, and 48 provinces and cities across the country. All autonomous regions have established agency services. With industry-leading product quality and excellent service, XBPA intensively cultivates the domestic market and actively explores the international market. Its products are exported to more than 60 countries and regions such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Russia, and are well received and favored by customers at home and abroad.
The establishment of a good listening environment, including both architectural acoustics and electroacoustics, is mainly due to the sound of the hall building. The reasons for the different level of performance of the same equipment are generally built. The difference in sound conditions, no matter how good the equipment, once it is placed in the harsh environment of construction sound conditions, it will certainly not achieve good results, and the construction sound requirements will be different because of the different requirements of the project, but also by the architectural decoration The quality of the building and the sound effect of the hall should be reasonable reverberation, good sound diffusion, no sound focus, no audible vibration noise, no sound shadow, no columnar waves, etc. Performed by the sound designer, it needs the strong cooperation of the building decoration technicians. However, because the design ideas and requirements of the two parties are not the same, this requires that the overall planning work of the sound engineering begins as soon as possible, and the two parties always maintain contact with each other so as to obtain mutual Understand and closely cooperate, in which the selection of reverberation time can be determined according to the nature and use of the project, if necessary, it should be used for reference. Excellent engineering experience.
Sound reinforcement system program design points and notes
The problems to be dealt with in building acoustics mainly include the following aspects:
Determine the best reverberation time
The indoor reverberation time is:
T60 = 0.161V
∑siαi
V - the volume of the sound field;
S - the area of ​​the sound field;
Alpha - the sound absorption coefficient of the building decorative materials of the sound field;
Since the architectural acoustics founder Sabin proposed the reverberation time calculation formula at the end of the last century, it expresses the relationship with the volume of the hall and the total amount of sound absorption in the room, and it is closely related to subjective listening evaluation, which becomes important in sound quality design. The parameters have been used so far.
The indoor sound absorption decoration is mainly set for the reverberation time. The evaluation criteria of the reverberation time index up till now, although there are no hard and tight indicators in the internationally popular or nationally promulgated standards, there are recommended values ​​for halls with different functions. In order to have a good sound reinforcement environment, it is advisable to properly lay sound-absorbing materials on the ceiling and back wall.
2) Absorption, reflection and diffusion must be considered comprehensively
The reverberation time calculation formula is premised on the assumption that the sound field is fully diffused. Of course, this condition cannot be achieved in actual projects and is one of the reasons for the error between calculation and actuality. A large number of practical results have proved that, under non-ideal diffuse sound field conditions, it is not sufficient to use only the reverberation time as a parameter to evaluate sound quality. During the exploration of the second sound quality parameter, the structural details of the reflected sound (especially the early part) during the decay of the reverberation are found. That is, the time, intensity, quantity, and direction combination of the sound reflection sequence are different, and the sound quality effect is also great. In and out. This is a factor that must be taken into consideration in the design of the room, the acoustic absorption and reflection surfaces of the room, the location of the sound source and the receiving point in the room, and the acoustic conditions in the vicinity thereof.
There are two major advances in the study of the details of early reflection structures. One is to realize that mastering the ratio of early reflection sound energy to the entire (or later) reflected sound energy is an important parameter that dictates language clarity and musical clarity. The second is that in the design of the concert hall (not all halls), in order to obtain a surround sound atmosphere, a wide sound source scene unique to the big band is exhibited, and it is hoped that a considerable part of these early reflections will come from the lateral direction. . As a result, the importance of the hall shape became more prominent in sound quality design, which promoted multi-parameter quantification considerations in sound quality design.
The gradual improvement of the sound quality design method mentioned above is based on comprehensive consideration and complement each other. Therefore, it is neither antagonistic nor alternative. The architectural design is mainly determined by aesthetic design. However, from the perspective of sound construction, careful consideration must be given to the specific shape of each surface. In general, effective direct sound and favorable sound reflection distribution should be obtained as much as possible. As well as eliminating unfavorable reflections, the sound field reaches a certain diffusion requirement.
Smallpox: If the ceiling is a dome, in order to avoid sound focusing, the reflected sound energy is evenly distributed on the seat. Usually, the frontal ceiling is pressed down, and then gradually opens backwards with a segmented convex arc. If the flowering is high and flat, the diffusion of adverse reflection sounds is not favorable, and the reflected sound may produce field sounds, and some "cloud-like" ceilings coordinated with the whole can be suspended at the top to ensure the distribution of the reflection sound and avoid the long reflection time. .
Sidewalls: For the parallel side wall surface, it is easy to form a "shudder echo". If no shape treatment is performed, sound-absorbing materials should be properly laid.
Back wall: The treatment of the back wall must avoid reflection of sound to the front seat or unfavorable echo feeling. Strong sound-absorbing material should be laid.
3) Processing of early acoustic energy ratio and lateral acoustic energy ratio The condition of the diffuse sound field is required to derive the reverberation time formula from statistical acoustic theory. Theoretically, the “diffusion field” should satisfy two conditions: uniform energy density and acoustic energy. The flow is randomly distributed in each propagation direction. When a short sound (actual sound source is not steady state) is gradually decayed after being emitted from the interior of the room through multiple interface reflections, and is formed as reverberation, also known as the reverberation process, there is no large-area strong sound-absorbing surface in the room. In this case, the sound field at this time is close to the diffuse sound field condition. However, in the initial stage of the reverberation process, the amount of reflected sound is limited, and the diffusion process is much less than the later stage. At the same time, there are large sound-absorbing surfaces concentrated in the audience seats in the actual halls, so there can be no theoretical “proliferation sound field”.
How to grasp the sense of early lateral reflection sound is still in the semi-quantitative stage. In terms of design methods, the interface is used to improve, especially the specific shape of the side wall, and efforts are made to make the audience seat, especially the front middle seat, have a richer early lateral reflection sound.
Decoration suggestions:
l, reverberation time control to achieve good reverberation time and frequency characteristics, in the hall side wall and the lower part of the back wall to do wooden skirts, wooden wall skirts have a good decorative nature, designed to low-frequency sound absorption structure, used to absorb low frequency (125 Hz, 250 Hz) sound to control the low frequency reverberation time.
The sound absorption structure on the wall and ceiling uses centrifugal glass wool felt to absorb sound. This material has good mid- and high-frequency sound absorption properties and is used to control mid- and high-frequency reverberation times. Centrifugal glass wool felt is stable, light weight, can not afford to drop, it does not itch skin, not hydrophilic, is currently the best sound-absorbing material on the market. This treatment can effectively reduce the vibration echo, and its price is also low, helping to reduce the project cost.
2. Diffusion processing of the sound field The ceiling is not designed arbitrarily, but is designed according to acoustic requirements, and an appropriate concave-convex lattice is designed without affecting the appearance. On the one hand, he uses the back of the auditorium to provide him with the last reflection on the upper part of the auditorium. On the other hand, he uses its bumps to diffuse the sound and make the sound field even.
In addition, large lighting fixtures are installed on the ceiling of the hall, which is both beautiful and practical, and is conducive to the spread of the sound field.
3. Echo interference control The sides of the back wall and the rostrum are all parts that produce echoes, and the ceiling may also produce echoes. Therefore, a strong sound absorption treatment is required on the back wall of the hall and the side of the rostrum, and sound absorption and diffusion processing is performed on the ceiling.
4. Background noise control Background noise includes external noise and internal noise. In the decoration phase, internal noise control and external sound insulation control are mainly considered. The internal noise mainly comes from the noise in the immediate room and the noise in the air-conditioning system. The noise of the air-conditioning system is transmitted to the room through the air outlet. During the renovation, attention must be paid to the design of the air-conditioning system. The composite muffler must be arranged in the air duct, and the corresponding muffler should be installed at the outlet if necessary.
General design requirements for the conference room
(1) Realistically reflecting people and scenes in the scene, giving participants a feeling of presence and unity in order to achieve good results in the exchange of visual and verbal information.
(2) The images transmitted by the lecture hall shall include figures, scenery, charts, texts, etc., and shall be clearly identifiable. The report hall shall be of suitable temperature and humidity and air circulation.
Auditorium/room environment
(1) Indoor ventilation: O.1 cubic meters/second
(2) Room temperature: 18 degrees Celsius - 22 degrees Celsius
(3)室内湿度:60% - 80%
(4)室内环境噪声:40dB(A)
报告厅的布局与照度
布局原则:
保证摄象效果以达到再现清晰图像的目的。
布局要求:
(1)为了确保图象的观看效果和防止对人物摄象产生的夺光及反光效应,故天幕/背景墙应根据不同地区采用均匀单一的浅色,使其所提供的视频电平近似O.35V。而房间的其它三面墙壁、桌布、地板、天花板等均与天幕颜色相匹配。天幕不宜使用画幅。
(2)为保证声绝源,如有地毯,地板上应铺地毯,天花板应装消音板,四周墙壁应装隔音毯,窗户应安装双层玻璃。
报告厅/房间的照度
灯光照度是报告厅的一个基本的必要条件,由于会议电视召开的时间具有随机性,故室内应使用人工光源而避免自然光。会场的门窗需用深色窗帘遮档。光源对人眼视觉无不良影响(无刺眼感觉)。最好选择三基色灯(色温3200度K)较宜。照度要求规定如下:
为了确保正确的图像色调以及摄象机的白平衡,规定照射在与会者险部上的光应是均匀的,照度应不低于500LUX。
为了确保文件、图表的字迹清晰,对文件、图表区域的照度应不大于700LUX。监视器、投影电视背投附近的照度为50—80LUX,避免直射光。

Higher quality and Lower Price 180 Degree Stainless Steel Elbow Produced by Jimeng Group.

180 Degree Stainless Steel Elbow,304/304l 180 Degree Elbow,316/316l 180 Degree Elbow

Size:DN 10-DN 2000

Standard:ANSI,ASME,JIS,KS,GOST,DIN,UNI,EN,GB

Export Country:US.UK.SERBIA,RUSSIA,ITALY,IRAN,KOREA,JAPAN,SPAIN,CHILE,BRAZIL

SCH NO:5,10,20,30.40,60,80,120,140,160,STD,XS

Welding Method:Seam,Seamless,Half Seamless.

Radius Type:1.5D(Long),1.0D(Short)

Surface Finish:Nature Surface,Sand Blasting,Painting.

180 Degree Stainless Steel Elbow

180 Degree Stainless Steel Elbow, 304/304l 180 Degree Elbow, 316/316l 180 Degree Elbow

Hebei Jimeng Highstrength Flange-tubes Group Co.,Ltd. , https://www.jimengflange.com

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